The Pompeiianum was built between 1840 and 1848 as a one-to-one reproduction of a Pompeiian villa. It was a project conceived by King Ludwig I of Bavaria (r. 1825–48) after a journey to Italy that he made with the architect Friedrich von Gärtner (1791–1847). The king himself decided on the location. What he wanted was a model of a Roman villa that would be accessible to everyone. The Pompeiianum was created not to satisfy his own personal needs but to serve an educational purpose and provide an opportunity to study ancient culture.